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Physical Landscape

The study area, roughly the size of the American state of New Jersey, was composed of three major landscape types: Marsch (drained wetlands), Geest (sandy soiled areas above sea level) and Moor. The diked and drained areas were designated by the date of reclamation: Old Marsch dated from the medieval period, New Marsch drained from the Early Modern period forward. A third form of Marsch (riverine) is used to designate land along the Weser, Elbe and Ems. Moor areas are subdivided into the more numerous High base soil heath and Low, acidic soil swamps.


Follow this link for maps of the soil and landscape of the Study Area.


The changing coastline and the impact of dikes and floods.


Moor colonization an drainage. Extent, processes, joint stock and government (Findorf) enterprises.







Follow this link for maps of the waterways (rivers, Teiche, canals).


Follow this link for maps of the road and rail network of the Study Area.

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